Multiple Sclerosis Discovery: The Podcast Of The Ms Discovery Forum

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Your independent source of news and information on research in multiple sclerosis and related diseases.

Episódios

  • Interview with Richard Cohen

    Interview with Richard Cohen

    25/04/2018 Duração: 33min
  • Interview with Marc Stecker, the Wheelchair Kamikaze

    Interview with Marc Stecker, the Wheelchair Kamikaze

    25/01/2018 Duração: 32min
  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 98 with Dr. David Baker

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 98 with Dr. David Baker

    02/09/2016 Duração: 15min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-eight of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview again features Dr. David Baker, Professor of Neuroimmunology at Queen Mary University of London in the U.K. We spoke at the ECTRIMS conference last fall. In part one of our interview he raised the issue of why there has been very poor translation from animal models to clinical trials. Today, Dr. Baker, also known as the ”Mouse Doctor” for his work with animal models, lays out why this situation exists and what to do about it.   Interviewee – David Baker I think there’s many reasons why, and I think we all have our failings. And one can point the finger at the animal models, which a lot of the clinicians do, saying it’s the animal model’s fault, which is possible. But I think also we have to look at humans and how humans use their animal models. And then how humans translate the data from the animal models into the clinic, becau

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 97 with Dr. David Baker

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 97 with Dr. David Baker

    02/09/2016 Duração: 14min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-seven of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. David Baker, Professor of Neuroimmunology at Queen Mary University of London in the UK. We spoke at the ECTRIMS conference last fall, where I asked him about his work with cannabinoid compounds – work that has led to a better understanding of the cannabinoid system as well as to candidate drug compounds to treat spasticity.   Interviewer – Dan Keller In terms of what you're doing now with cannabinoids, can you tell me what you are looking for, and what you've found?   Interviewee – David Baker Many, many years ago, we actually were probably the first people to show that cannabis can actually alleviate muscle stiffness in animal models of multiple sclerosis, which then kind of underpinned the push to look for cannabis in MS. So people with MS were smoking cannabis and perceiving benefit. The question was, why? And w

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 96 with Drs. Bibiana Bielekova and Mika Komori

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 96 with Drs. Bibiana Bielekova and Mika Komori

    26/08/2016 Duração: 19min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-six of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Drs. Bibiana Bielekova, who is an investigator at the National Institutes of Health, and Mika Komori, a postdoctoral fellow in her lab. We caught up with the two physician-researchers at the ACTRIMS meeting in New Orleans earlier this year. At the meeting, Dr. Komori talked about a new and more sensitive way to evaluate what may be happening in the brains and spinal cords of people with progressive MS.   In a recent study, she examined samples of cerebral spinal fluid, or CSF, collected through a thin needle near the base of the spine. She was scouting for immunological biomarkers of progressive MS. In the analysis, a molecule called CD27, mostly from T cells, stood out, as did another marker specific to B cells. Even more revealing was the ratio of the CD27 molecule to the T cells. T cells are a big player in relapsing

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 95 with Dr. Michael Levy

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 95 with Dr. Michael Levy

    19/08/2016 Duração: 11min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-five of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. Michael Levy, associate professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University. When we met in his office, he told me about his work on the role of T cells in neuromyelitis optica, or NMO. Finding antibodies to aquaporin-4 is indicative of NMO. But when Dr. Levy used aquaporin-4 reactive T cells, they could induce NMO in a mouse model, giving a clue to the role of T cells in the disease, and possibly opening up a new therapeutic avenue.   Interviewer – Dan Keller What's different about this approach than what has been thought of previously?   Interviewee – Michael Levy In neuromyelitis optica, there is the thought that the disease involves an antibody, the anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, that that antibody is involved in causing the disease. And what we demonstrated in this model is that we could recreate the disease simply

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 94 with Dr. Oscar Fernandez

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 94 with Dr. Oscar Fernandez

    05/08/2016 Duração: 10min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-four of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. Oscar Fernandez, a senior investigator at the Málaga Regional University Hospital in Málaga, Spain. When we met at a neurology conference in Chile, he reviewed for me some of the elements of risk stratification for second-line therapies for MS. That implies there are first-line therapies and probably third-line ones, as well – terms that Dr. Fernandez is not particularly fond of.   Interviewee – Oscar Fernandez I am very much against that classification, but this is being used for clinicians, so I have to accept that. I believe that there is one drug for one patient, and I don't believe in lines. Because if you use lines, then you must be forced sometimes to do the passing through all these lines. And many times you must go indirectly from the very beginning to second or third line and the case is very severe. Anyho

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 93 with Dr. Lilyana Amezcua

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 93 with Dr. Lilyana Amezcua

    05/08/2016 Duração: 11min

    [intro music]   Host — Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-three of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. Lilyana Amezcua, an assistant professor of neurology at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Part of her work focuses on defining racial disparities in MS, particularly among the Hispanic community. When we met, she said the prevalence of MS among Hispanics in Latin America has been increasing over the past 20 years, and their clinical characteristics are different from those of whites. As Hispanic Americans constitute one of the largest minorities in the U.S. population, she looked into their clinical picture, as well.   Interviewee – Lilyana Amezcua And so we initially did a first observation in 2011 noting when we examined close to 200 MS patients of Hispanic background self-identified that they were at twice the risk of presenting with optic neuritis and spinal cord problems compared to whites.

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 92 with Dr. Shiv Saidha

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 92 with Dr. Shiv Saidha

    04/08/2016 Duração: 21min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-two of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features a conversation with Dr. Shiv Saidha, an associate professor of neurology in the Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuro-infectious Diseases at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. His work has focused on the retina in MS, using the technique of optical coherence tomography, or OCT, to follow the disease, assess and monitor therapeutic strategies, and to better understand the pathobiology of MS. I asked him why the retina is of interest in MS and about the utility of OCT.   Interviewee – Shiv Saidha OCT is the optical analogue of ultrasound B mode imaging. And it's a noninvasive technique that has a lot of utility in quantifying the ultrastructure of various tissues, including the retina. We have a lot of interest in being able to quantify retinal structures specifically in multiple sclerosis because optic nerve

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 91 with Dr. Jorge Nogales-Gaete

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 91 with Dr. Jorge Nogales-Gaete

    21/07/2016 Duração: 13min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety-one of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. Jorge Nogales-Gaete, who is Chief of the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Chile in Santiago. We spoke at a neurology conference in Santiago about MS patients' perceptions of their clinical care and the importance of the healthcare team's understanding those perceptions.   Interviewer – Dan Keller Let me ask you about the ethical and clinical imperatives for the healthcare team when they encounter an MS patient to learn their perceptions, to learn their desires, their approach to therapy.   Interviewee – Jorge Nogales-Gaete I think the patient has at least two different condition on other disease, chronical disease. The first is the age. They're too young to have a chronical disease. There's nobody is prepared to have one. You have think about your lives, your pr

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 90 with Dr. Daniel Hartung

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 90 with Dr. Daniel Hartung

    21/07/2016 Duração: 20min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Ninety of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Welcome to the weird world of the U.S. pharmaceutical market. A few outrageous cases of drug price gouging have made the headlines, but in multiple sclerosis, a more serious concern is the steady annual rise in cost of all disease-modifying therapies, or DMTs. So says Dr. Daniel Hartung, a researcher at the Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University College of Pharmacy. In a recent study, he found that MS drug prices over time outpaced both inflation and similar biologics. It’s not just the new drugs. As each more expensive DMT comes to market, the prices of older drugs also race to catch up. It’s affecting the drugs available to patients and causing other concerns.   Interviewer – Carol Morton Can you tell me what questions you were asking and why?   Interviewee – Daniel Hartung Sure. So the study that we did had its origin after ha

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 89 with Dr. Charity Evans

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 89 with Dr. Charity Evans

    06/07/2016 Duração: 08min

    [intro music]   Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-nine of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller.   Today's interview features Dr. Charity Evans, assistant professor of pharmacy at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. After a drug is on the market, systematically evaluating hospital admissions and the reasons for them can add new evidence for its effectiveness or adverse effects. By using clinical data from the British Columbia MS database and linking it to health system databases for MS patients, Dr. Evans evaluated the effect of beta-interferon on hospital event rates compared to those not on beta-interferon. She tells us what led up to this study.   Interviewee – Charity Evans This was part of a larger study that was looking at long-term effects of beta-interferons, and we wanted to see if there was any impact of the interferons on hospitalization rates.   Interviewer – Dan Keller And what did you do to look at it?   Dr. Evan

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 88 with Dr. John Hart

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 88 with Dr. John Hart

    16/06/2016 Duração: 21min

    Full transcript: [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-eight of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. You may have heard of transcranial magnetic stimulation, a treatment for migraine, neuropathic pain, and treatment-resistant depression using an electromagnet positioned on the scalp. Dr. John Hart, a professor of neurology and neurotherapeutics at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, is now testing another electrical technique called transcranial direct current stimulation, or tDCS, as well as alternating current to improve cognition in brain disorders, potentially including MS. An even more directed form, called high definition tDCS, allows more precise targeting of brain areas. The experimental procedure involves placing electrodes strategically on the outside of the head. We spoke in his office about how he's going about developing the technique and how it may eventually be combined with other therapeut

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 87 with Dr. Ellen Mowry

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 87 with Dr. Ellen Mowry

    11/06/2016 Duração: 07min

    [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-seven of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. Animal data, laboratory studies, and even some human evidence suggest that restricting caloric intake may have a salutary effect on diseases that involve inflammation, possibly including MS. I spoke with Dr. Ellen Mowry of Johns Hopkins University at last fall's ECTRIMS meeting in Barcelona about the rationale for testing caloric restriction in patients with MS and a study that she's carrying out in this regard. Interviewee – Ellen Mowry Laura Piccio and Anne Cross at Wash U, among others, looked at calorie restriction in a mouse model of MS, EAE. And they were able to show that reducing calories prior to the disease reduces the disease and/or its severity. And there are a lot of other in vitro data, other mouse models, and even some human data from other patient populations suggesting that intermittent fasting or intermittent calorie restriction no

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 86 with Dr. Pavan Bhargava

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 86 with Dr. Pavan Bhargava

    27/05/2016 Duração: 14min

    Full transcript: [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-Six of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. A hallmark of multiple sclerosis is a new brain lesion. The active inflammation normally goes away in about 4 to 6 weeks, disappearing from contrast-enhanced detection by MRI scans. More recently, in some people with MS, researchers have found smaller longer-lasting inflammatory lesions outside the brain, in the surrounding lining called the leptomeninges, as well as evidence that they may play a role in progressive disease. The tiny compartments are associated with more severe disability, worse outcomes, and nearby gray matter demyelination. Dr. Pavan Bhargava, a neuroimmunology fellow at the Johns Hopkins University MS Center in Baltimore, Maryland, has started a phase I trial to slow progressive disease by targeting the B cells in these follicles. He is testing an anti-B cell antibody called rituximab, using the drug intrathecally—

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 85 with Dr. Eva Havrdová

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 85 with Dr. Eva Havrdová

    20/05/2016 Duração: 10min

    Full Transcript: [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-five of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. Many MS patients will require a change of drug therapy over the course of their disease, possibly because of relapse or tolerability. At last fall's ECTRIMS conference in Barcelona, I spoke with Eva Havrdová MD PhD, professor of neurology and head of the MS Center at Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, about when and how to change therapy. I first asked her how she detects a need to change therapy because of a suboptimal response. Interviewee – Eva Havrdová It's very difficult to find the right solution for each patient, but as to our opinion, the best thing is to really start early treatment and monitor closely the patient. It means that you look not only at relapses or progression. It's too late. We also look at MRI after six months after starting treatment. And I think it is now quite proven that, if the patient has eith

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 84 with Dr. Ilya Kister

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 84 with Dr. Ilya Kister

    20/05/2016 Duração: 15min

    [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-four of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. People with MS take disease modifying therapies, or DMTs, for years. But is it possible to stop the drugs at some point or at least take a drug holiday? I spoke last fall at the ECTRIMS meeting in Barcelona with Dr. Ilya Kister, an assistant professor in the MS Care Center at the New York University School of Medicine. He has looked at various studies and registries that shed light on the question, and he discusses the utility and limitations of using observational data from big data sets. Interviewer – Dan Keller People know a lot about starting DMTs, but not about stopping. And, I take it, there's not much been looked at yet in terms of could you stop and what happens. Interviewee – Ilya Kister Yes, that’s a question that patients often ask, and clinicians certainly wonder about. Is it safe to stop the drug? When is it safe to stop it? And all the

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 83 with Dr. Jerry Wolinsky

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 83 with Dr. Jerry Wolinsky

    17/05/2016 Duração: 18min

    [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-three of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. For years, MS researchers have been looking for a measure of MS progression and disability that would be meaningful to clinicians, clinical researchers, patients, and the regulatory agencies that approve new drugs, such as the Food and Drug Administration. To this end, people have looked to composite endpoints that are sensitive to small changes in patient condition and comparable across studies. At the ECTRIMS conference last fall in Barcelona, I met with Dr. Jerry Wolinsky, professor of neurology and director of the MS Research Group at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, who leads us along the path to develop a useful measure incorporating composite endpoints. Interviewer – Dan Keller In terms of assessing progression and disability in MS, is there some advantage to having composite endpoints as opposed to the standard tests

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 82 with Dr. Adam Kaplin

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 82 with Dr. Adam Kaplin

    17/05/2016 Duração: 21min

    [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eight-two of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. Depression affects as many as 50 percent of people with MS during their lifetimes. But according to Dr. Adam Kaplin, a psychiatrist in the Johns Hopkins MS Center in Baltimore, it is treatable to a large extent, and with good results. Dr. Kaplin studies the immune basis of depression and cognitive impairment, specifically in MS and central nervous system-related autoimmune diseases. We met in Baltimore. Interviewer – Dan Keller Let’s talk about depression in multiple sclerosis. Is it a reaction to someone having a chronic disease, or is there something more going on because of the disease? Interviewee – Adam Kaplin It’s a great question, and what I will tell you is one of my patients says to me that you’re either stressed, or you’re dead. We all have stress going on, and it’s always possible to look at something in our life and say, ah, that’s what cau

  • Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 81 with Dr. Kaarina Kowalec

    Multiple Sclerosis Discovery -- Episode 81 with Dr. Kaarina Kowalec

    11/05/2016 Duração: 12min

    [intro music] Host – Dan Keller Hello, and welcome to Episode Eighty-one of Multiple Sclerosis Discovery, the podcast of the MS Discovery Forum. I’m Dan Keller. The science of pharmacogenomics can help identify those genetic variants that are associated with a high or low risk for experiencing an adverse drug reaction or a beneficial therapeutic response. While at the ECTRIMS conference in Barcelona last fall, I spoke with Kaarina Kowalec, a postdoctoral fellow in the Pharmacoepidemiology in MS research group at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. We discussed the potential for using pharmacogenomics to optimize the risk/benefit profile in a patient's favor, focusing first on the risk of liver injury with interferon-beta. Interviewer – Dan Keller How are you using pharmacogenomics to assess the risk for interferon-beta-induced liver injury? Interviewee – Kaarina Kowalec Yes, essentially we have two groups of patients. We have ones that have had the drug reaction and then the other ones th

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